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Gerhard Banse, Tomasz Stępień, Mariola Sułkowska-Janowska, Mariusz Wojewoda (Hg.)
Die Zukunft der Medienräume.
Zwischen Freiheit und Zwängen
2017, [= e-Culture, Bd. 23], 223 S., ISBN 978-3-86464-150-3, 25,80 EUR
=> Vorbestellanfrage beim Verlag
Editorial der Herausgeber 7
Einführung: Die neuen Medien – Kultur, Freiheit und Zwänge 9
Gerhard Banse, Tomasz Stępień, Mariola Sułkowska-Janowska, Mariusz Wojewoda
Freiheit und Notwendigkeit – Neue Medien und Nutzungsmuster 23
Neue Medien – zwischen technischem Determinismus und kulturellem Zwang 39
Freiheit zum Weglassen oder Zwang zur Kürze? Linguistische Fragen und Antworten zum Kurztext als präferierte Kommunikationsform in den Neuen Medien 49
Daten, Informationen und Wissen in Kontexten Neuer Medien. Entsteht ein neues Wissensparadigma? 65
Ethical Aspects of Communication in the New Media 77
The North-South Digital Divide: A Socio-Economic and Political Discourse 91
Safyah Hassan-Yavuz, Viktor Jakupec
Einflüsse des Internets auf den sozialen Wandel in modernen Gesellschaften. Ergebnisse der zweiten CultMedia-Erhebung 2014/2015 101
Antje Zapf, Anne Wohne
Das Internet als wichtiger Bereich der politischen Kommunikation in Polen 115
The Phenomenon of Secondary Victimization in New Media 127
Aleksandra Kuzior, Paulina Kuzior
Kommunikation ohne Worte – Medienangebot via Live Streaming 137
New Media Creativity: The Art of Machine – The Machine of Art 151
New Media and the Problem of Recorded Music 161
Zeit-Werden des Raumes – Derridas Temporisation der Zeichen und das Internet 171
Konstantin Keulen, Kornelius Keulen
Unternehmerisches Denken und Handeln – Eine Kernkompetenz der Wissensgesellschaft 179
Die Entwicklung der Technikbewertung in der Tschechischen Republik – Barrieren und Chancen 193
Petr Machleidt, Karel Mráček
Technikfolgenabschätzung als gesellschaftspolitische Beratung 201
Autorinnen und Autoren 221
Freedom and Necessity – New Media and Usage Patterns
The use of new media is taking place in a „space“ between „freedom“ on the one hand and „need“ (“necessity“) on the other. Freedom means here the possibility of choosing between several options (technical, economic, social,... type), need as condition (apparent? „compulsive“?) of no alternatives in using new media. In this article this „space“ will be analysed on several levels (from the „code“ up to the „social group“ in networked systems). Shown is on the one hand that both „freedom“ and „need“ (“necessity“) are relational, are related to one another, on the other hand, that freedom is always limited (“bounded freedom“) and „need“ (“necessity“) is not the same like compulsion.
New Media – between Technical Determinism and Cultural Pluralism
The article shows the problems that arise in connection with the development of new media and they are important for the culture and for the man. The digitalisation of communication technology built the ground for the technological determinism. The specific role as a compulsion factor have the consumption culture. These both – technological and cultural – factors arise through the tensions between the „unity“ and the „multiplicity“. New media play in this area positive as well as negative role and have ambivalent meaning.
To be free to leave out or to be forced to be short? Some linguistic questions and answers concerning the short text as a format of communication in New Media
“Shortness“ of utterances and texts, especially in terms of some format for internet communication, usually has a positive connotation. The story started with the strong restrictions of „place“ for presenting content on the screen of the human-computer-interfaces or on the very small displays of mobile devices (without scrolling and clicking: what can be seen at one glance). In our days it might be the factor „time“ that has an impact on coping with information and knowledge represented in the New Media and that is related to the actors of using new media. Therefore, short texts may be more and more preferred and even are becoming some standard. What is to pay attention to is the fact that those ideas are purely quantitatively determined? Qualitative aspects such as information quality or communication effectiveness are not considered. The present contribution develops some plea pro short text based on the basis of the qualitative, linguistic criteria of connections to context. There are three cases which are demonstrated with respect of the strategies of pointing out, focusing, and text management. Just to say it, coping with this kind of short texts costs time. Let’s be free to spent time!
Data, Information and Knowledge in the Context of New Media. Is there a New Paradigm a of Knowledge Arising?
The article presents reflections on the complex phenomenon of information and knowledge in new media. The introduction is a brief overview of knowledge from the point of view of classical knowledge with its taxonomy, classification and falsification. A very important part of the article is to understood what gives a knowledge a certain structure (distinction of „significant“, „bright“ knowledge), but also a deeper insight into the essence of knowledge. Another part of the paper deals with the information appearing in the new media and its uncontrolled flow. The attention is drawn to the economy of perception and mechanisms of selecting information on the Internet. In the last part of article the particular attention was given to Wikipedia as a collection of knowledge in new media. The concept of folksonomy and the idea of open collaboration society show the dimension of this type of knowledge. Due to the widespread use of such knowledge in science and everyday life the question was asked: is there a new paradigm of knowledge?
Ethical Aspects of Communication in the New Media
New media (digital media) allow for the exchange of information on a previously unprecedented scale. We have more and more opportunities to acquire knowledge, build interpersonal relationships, conduct new forms of economic activities. This presents before us great opportunities, and at the same time poses a threat. In this context Manuel Castells uses the term „communication society“ or „network society“. The use of the new technologies is changing the way of understanding categories of time, space, proximity, distance, durability, variability, presence and exclusion. I think that in a society of open communication we do not have equal access to information. In addition to the developed global news channels, there are also elite networks of information exchange, selecting entities and institutions because of the access to information. So far the dialogue in the networked public sphere has been something illusory. Information is a symbol of power, domination and fight for the recipient (the customer). It is possible, however, to point out certain aspects of online activity with a positive impact on the formation of social behaviour, for example a culture of voluntary resource exchange that is not profit-oriented or a viral activity.
The North-South Digital Divide. A Socio-Economic and Political Discourse
Safyah Hassan-Yavuz, Viktor Jakupec
In much of the scholarly literature the rapid development, dissemination, and access to ICT and social media is taken for granted. This so the argument goes, has fundamentally and globally changed the social, economic, and political infrastructure. Yet this is at least partially an illusion. It applies to the rich developed countries (the North) but not in the same extent to the poor developing countries (the South). Thus there is a prima facie case to be put for the North-South digital divide. This paper analyses this divide from a socio-economic and politico-economic vantage point. It brings to the fore the two main school of thoughts, the neo-liberal and the socio-liberal. Subsequently, the discussion turns to the dialectics of digital technology. It is shown that on the one side of the North-South digital divide, digital technology became an integral part of the developed countries or the North, whereas many developing countries or the South have not been able to benefit from the digital technology. We argue that there are not only significant differences between developed and developing countries in terms of accessing and using digital technology but more so with reference to the purpose of digital technology, from an aid development point of view.
Influences of the Internet on Social Change in Modern Societies. Results of the second CultMedia Survey 2014/2015
Antje Zapf, Anne Wohne
Some results of the second CultMedia survey will be presented and compared with the data of the first survey. In the data from the two surveys some trends described in the literature are to be traced without levying any generalization of statements beyond the interviewed persons. The sociological perspective, from which the results are interpreted, can be outlined with the following issues: The Internet removes restrictions on the natural communication – what kind of social effects does this entail? Does this give rise to new social barriers in the communication behaviour? The results of thus triggered social processes are the changing social structures. This change must be certified either in the circumstances, action structures and social networks and / or in the values, motives and sense ratios of actors. In brief: Social change means the total of changes of a society in terms of: its structure, its environment, the structure of positions, roles and status, the interaction network of members, the ranking scale of dominant values, etc. Can such changes be proven in the data of the second CultMedia survey?
The Internet as an Important Area of Political Communication in Poland
The article aims to support the thesis that Internet’s development has changed the nature of political communication in Poland. Visible growth of the activity of Polish Internet-users in this field has made them the most important party of this communication – right next to mass media and political actors. This has also changed the functional effects of using the Internet for political communication. The attractiveness and interactivity of the Internet has forced Polish politicians to using the communicational forms that Internet provides (such as chats, forums, blogs and especially social media). Internet’s meaning in the field of political communication is also connected to the fact that it is an important source of information and opinions on politics in Poland, although the domination of the old-type media (especially television) in this field has not been overcome yet.
The Phenomenon of Secondary Victimization in New Media
Alexandra Kuzior, Paulina Kuzior
Mass media have enormous power of social impact, which is why irresponsible announcing the details of crimes may bring the victims unnecessary stress and lead to secondary victimization. Still a lot of people do not recognize the term „victimization“. Authors present the issues of secondary victimization and the dangers connected with these phenomena, such as for example posttraumatic stress disorder or victim blaming.
Communication without Words via Live Streaming
How can the new media contribute to ethics or moral values? Many suggestions and answers to this question are available in the internet, yet new is the offer of a so called ghost healer, named Braco, who just looks at his visitors or viewers a couple of minutes in a computer setting via live streaming. By this gazing view, thousands of people testify a remarkable effect of this wordless communication: They claim to experience a deep feeling of peace, of comfort or even of healing both in a physical or also mental way. This gazing view is being transmitted via live streaming practically all over the world, transcends language borders as well as cultural limits. The technique of live streaming reaches out globally and can be received via worldwide web by thousands of people at the same time. The effects on the addressees can be disputed, of course, but there are many viewers in all continents that witness the values they have purportedly received: peace, joy, and healing.
New Media Creativity: The Art of Machine, the Machine of Art
Art is based on technology – in the sense that a minimal, precisely technological condition of making art is medium and – more or less – ability of using it by an artist. For a long time the technological element co-constituting – together with talent, vision, genius etc. – art seemed to be rather obvious and rather did not generate any problem. But the situation has been changed by appearing of photography which verified and intensified the technological aspect of art. On the other hand however, contemporary art definitely redefines technology; here namely medium becomes a value itself and even we are still talking about an artistry in this context, it is strictly correlated with a dominant of present time – technique or better to say – high advanced technology. Net.art, cyber art, bio art – to mention but a few – are extremely high technologically marked. Perfect illustration – on which I would like to focus in the article – is artistic output of Australian author, Stelarc. Admittedly he is mainly interested in human body and in that sense he is making body art, but the body here seems to be more and more technicized so in other word – it is high technologically advanced, however still human, machine. In this context some fundamental questions arise: does the dominance of technology in any sense dethrone artistry of contemporary work of art? Then, what is relation between technology and creativity – does it remain still the same like in case of traditional art? Finally, does the machine character of contemporary work of art change in any sense a social status and a role of art? Does we still need museums? And what kind of visitor would be eventually interested in the museums? Could it be … a bit enigmatic representative of both, post- and trans-humanism … symborg?
New Media and the Problem of Recorded Music. Freedom and Necessity
The article deals with the history of recording in music up to last Internet projects. The author shows that yet the first ways of notations presuppose a prototype of music. From historical point of view it could be composer’s verbal instruction as well as score or recording. The piece of music is considered to be the prototype established by notation. The notation and recording techniques determine our way of thinking about the music. This assumption finds the alternative at the end of the twentieth century. Musicians and composers who applying new media start to consider open structures. The open compositions rely on databases. Databases continuously collect different sounds and samples of music. That is why the newest compositions are unfinished and expandable. Here interesting questions arise: Do these open structures modify or cancel the pattern in music? Is there a new model for music basing on new recording and editing technologies?
Time-becoming of the Space. Derridas Temporalization of the Signs and the Internet
Konstantin Keulen, Kornelius Keulen
Différance in the sense of Derrida (with an a) refers to differing temporalization as well as spatializing, i.e. the temporalizing of space and the spatializing of time. Corresponding to this dichotomy we have the same situation for signs which enables us to rethink the concepts of sign and internet. From our viewpoint in the internet it is temporalizing which dominates the process of considering sign-likeness and the movement of signs. It is conditional on the play of différance that any sign will function and so it makes possible to imagine a world characterized by the sign’s hiding and de-hiding. In the structure of signs absence is inscribed as postponed presence and this fact underlines the tense of present when signs are used in and by the internet. In the internet the fabric of references generates a complex interweaving which creates reality but a reality which is paramountly attached to the concept of time.
Entrepreneurial Thinking and Action – A Core Competency of the Knowledge Society
Entrepreneurship and new media pervade the daily life of every one of us in a way that both on their own but also their interaction can be described as characteristic traits of our present and future. Therefore, this article is meant to illustrate that interdependency and to embed the topic of entrepreneurship in a didactical and educational context. In doing so, the article also examines what thinking and acting in an entrepreneurial manner means from this educational perspective. In conclusion, the article presents current results of the entrepreneurship-education-research and outlines didactical consequences.
TA Development in the Czech Republic. Barriers and Opportunities
Petr Machleidt, Karel Mráček
The article deals with the situation of Technology Assessment in the Czech Republic. There is a well-developed theoretical basis of TA but a relatively weak TA practice. We are lacking a broad and concrete institutional lay down of TA, in particular, there is no effective link to relevant legislative activities. The concept of TA can also be viewed as a right tool for research and innovation policy in the Czech Republic. Teaching in the field of TA is also important. The positive acceptance of TA problems by students at the TU Prague shows new opportunities for the establishment of TA in the Czech Republic. The idea of „industry 4.0“ is also a great challenge for TA in the Czech Republic.
Technology Assessment as Socio-political Advice
The forthcoming development of technology and mass dissemination of technological innovations, especially in the media, make out the societal and political discourse nowadays. At the same time there can be observed efforts focusing on objective, rational and realistic analyses of the emerging technological phenomena. In this context is presented the concept of technology assessment (TA) as a form of societal and political advice as well as the mark of democracy. This concerns above all the TA-development in the new member-state of the EU such as Poland.