Gerhard Banse / Annely Rothkegel (Hg.)

 

Aneignungs- und Nutzungsweisen Neuer Medien durch Kreativität und Kompetenz

 

 

 

2015, [= e-Culture, Band 21], 283 S., zahlr. Abb und Tab., ISBN 978-3-86464-097-1, 34,80 EUR

 

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

 

Editorial

Gerhard Banse, Petr Machleidt: Nachruf: Ladislav Tondl (* 28.2.1924, † 7.8.2015)

Gerhard Banse, Annely Rothkegel: Einführung

Gerhard Banse: Neues im Spannungsfeld von Methodik, Heuristik und Kreativität

Nicanor Ursua: Kreativität und Kompetenz als treibende Kräfte und Schlüsselfaktoren in der Wissensgesellschaft

 

I Gemeinschaftsbildung und Soziale Netzwerke

Julius Erdmann: Medienaneignung von Social Network Sites im Internet – Prozessieren von Zeichen und Aneignung von Interfaces

Karel Mráček, Petr Machleidt: New Communication Cultures and Innovation Dynamics. Czech Experiences

Antje Zapf, Anne Wohne: Nutzung der Neuen Medien durch Studierende in Deutschland und in der Mongolei – Erhebung 2014/15. Einige Ergebnisse der zweiten CultMedia-Erhebung

 

II (Nutzungs-)Kulturen in Neuen Medien

Tilo Grenz: Reflexivität in Zeiten soziotechnischer Handlungsfelder – am Beispiel App Store

Daniela Fobelová, Pavel Fobel: Kultur und neue Medien im Kontext der Angewandten Ethik

Paul Eisewicht, Michaela Pfadenhauer: Die kulturstiftende Relevanz neuer Medien für Aneignungskulturen – am Beispiel Circuit Bending

Annely Rothkegel: Kreativität und Standardisierung bei der Wissensvermittlung im Netz: Bedingungen der Textbildung und Nutzung technischer Vorgaben

Mariola Sułkowska-Janowska: A (New) New Media Poetics? Human Creativity in the Context of New Media

Magdalena Wołek: Revolution Bringing the Bygones Back. New Technologies in Music of the 20th Century

Konstantin Keulen, Kornelius Keulen: Im Netz der Zeit – Das Internet im Spiegel der Ereignisphilosophie. Konzeptionelle Ansätze

Alexandra Kuzior, Paulina Kuzior: Protection of an Image of Crime Victims versus New Media

Zbigniew Oniszczuk: Die im Netz erzogene Generation in Polen. Ein empirisches Porträt

 

III Kompetenzausbildung und Bildung

Andrzej Kiepas: Rationale und reflexive Kompetenzen des Menschen in der Kultur der Neuen Medien

Bogdan Zeler: Neue Ideen in der Multimedia-Welt – die Notwendigkeit einer Bilanz

Mariusz Wojewoda: Media and Anxiety of Civilization – an Ethical Perspective

Gerhard Zecha: Virtualisierung kultureller Räume durch Neue Medien: Wo bleibt der Kult, wo die Moral?

Otto Ulrich: Kannst du Kühe melken? Knopfdrücker wollen raus aus der Algorithmusfalle

Tadeusz Miczka: Neue Kultur / neue Kulturen – alte Unterrichtspraxen in der Medienerziehung

 

Summaries

Autorinnen und Autoren

 

Editorial der Herausgeber

Die Reihe e-Culture wurde zu Beginn des Jahres 2004 auf Initiative des European Network of Cultural Diversity and New Media (CultMedia) begründet. Anliegen des Netzwerks ist die weitergehende Analyse der Veränderungen kultureller Praxen (etwa Nutzungsmuster, Nutzungsmotivationen und Nutzungssituationen), die im Zusammenhang mit der Anwendung der so genannten Neuen Medien, vor allem des Internets stehen. Die Forschung zur netzbasierten Kommunikation hat sich in den letzten Jahren ähnlich rasant entwickelt wie das Internet selbst. Die Relevanz dieses relativ neuen Forschungsfeldes ergibt sich auch aus der großen Bedeutung, die dem Internet für mehrere wichtige gesellschaftliche Trends (wie z. B. die Globalisierung) beigemessen wird. Der Wandel, der aus diesen Trends folgt, wird oft als ein umfassender Kulturwandel eingeschätzt, mit Auswirkungen auf alle Lebensbereiche moderner Gesellschaften.

Infolge seiner disziplinären Zusammensetzung konzentriert sich das Netzwerk in seiner Arbeit auf die philosophische und kulturwissenschaftliche, auf die psychologische und sozialwissenschaftliche sowie auf die kommunikations- und informationswissenschaftliche Ebene. Fokus der Untersuchung ist dabei stets die Frage, wie die Möglichkeiten und Auswirkungen des Internets hinsichtlich neuer Formen der Information, Kommunikation und Kooperation im Bereich der „Kultur des Alltäglichen“ einzuschätzen sind.

Die Reihe e-Culture dient der Vorstellung von Forschungs- und Arbeitsergebnissen im Bereich Neue Medien und Kultur. Sie soll einen Kristallisationspunkt für auf diesem Gebiet Tätige darstellen – innerhalb wie außerhalb des CultMedia-Netzwerks.

Der vorliegende 21. Band Aneignungs- und Nutzungsweisen Neuer Medien durch Kreativität und Kompetenz basiert auf Vorträgen und Diskussionen der Jahrestagung des CultMedia-Netzwerks, die im November 2014 in Karlsruhe, Deutschland, stattfand. Er knüpft unmittelbar an die Ergebnisse der im September 2013 in Potsdam, Deutschland, durchgeführten CultMedia-Tagung „Virtualisierung und Mediatisierung kultureller Räume. Die Neuen Medien – Gewinne, Verluste, Gefahren“ an, die im Band 20 dieser Reihe dokumentiert sind. Fortgesetzt wird die bereits etablierte Diskussion zum Fragenkomplex des Themenfelds „Technikvermittelte Kulturen“. Bisher wurde klar herausgestellt, dass die Wechselwirkungen insbesondere zwischen den technischen Bedingungen der Neuen Medien und dem kulturellen Wandel des gesellschaftlichen Zusammenlebens auf verschiedenen Ebenen, in vielfältigen Perspektiven und vor allem innerhalb eines interdisziplinären sowie internationalen Rahmens betrachtet werden müssen. In diesem Sinne fokussiert dieser Band auf die Mediennutzer und -nutzerinnen. Von der Disziplin her sind beteiligt: Ethik, Kulturwissenschaft, Medienwissenschaft, Philosophie, Politikwissenschaft Rechtswissenschaft, Romanistik, Soziologie und Sprachwissenschaft. Da die Thematik auf Nutzung. Nutzungsbedingungen und Nutzungspraxen der Neuen Medien fokussiert, können die genannten Fachgebiete, für die derartige Nutzungsfragen von besonderem Interesse sind, vor allem von den Diskussionen zu den Schnittstellen zwischen einzelnen Disziplinen profitieren.

Im Mittelpunkt stehen Fragestellungen zu den Aneignungs- und Nutzungsweisen Neuer Medien, insbesondere in Bezug auf die Rolle von Kreativität und Kompetenz der Beteiligten, die einzeln oder gemischt als antreibende Kräfte für den kulturellen Wandel sorgen, denn damit sind zwei zentrale Momente erfasst, die – zunächst als widersprüchlich erscheinend – solche Umgangsweisen mit den neuen Medien charakterisieren, die einerseits für Offenheit und Entwicklung und andererseits für Verantwortung und Kontrolle stehen. Als Aspekte hervorgehobener Aufmerksamkeit bilden „Kompetenz“ und „Kreativität“ so den Roten Faden, der sich durch die nachfolgenden Beiträge zieht, die drei Kapiteln zugeordnet sind: Kapitel I Gemeinschaftsbildung und Soziale Netzwerke“ beschäftigt sich mit den ambivalenten Zugängen, bei denen sich standardisierte technische Vorgaben mit individuellen Zielen mischen; die Frage der Bestimmung differenzierbarer Nutzungskulturen im Sinne gesellschaftlich relevanter Umgangsweisen von Menschen untereinander und mit unterschiedlichen Realitäten – hier vor allem in Form Neuer Medien – wird in Kapitel II Nutzungskulturen in Neuen Medien behandelt; in Kapitel III Kompetenzausbildung und Bildung kommt die umfassende, aber keineswegs unumstrittene Funktion Neuer Medien für den Erwerb und den Umgang mit Wissen zum Tragen.

Deutlich werden dabei einerseits vor allem kulturelle und soziale, aber auch individuelle Voraussetzungen wie Folgen der Mediatisierung und Virtualisierung vielfältiger Bereiche der Lebenswelt, andererseits kognitive, ethische und institutionelle Faktoren bzw. Bedingungen, die für die weitere Ausprägung der Informations- und Wissensgesellschaft relevant sind.

Vorangestellt wurde den Texten ein Nachruf auf den tschechischen Wissenschafts-, Technik- und Sprachphilosophen Professor Ladislav Tondl, der in seiner Funktion als Leiter des Zentrums für Wissenschafts-, Technik- und Gesellschaftsstudien beim Institut für Philosophie der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik, Prag, das CultMedia-Netzwerk stets wohlwollend unterstützt und begleitet hat. Zur Erinnerung: Die Gründung des Netzwerks war am 24. September 2002 in Prag erfolgt.

 

Für die Herausgeber Gerhard Banse

 

Summaries

News in the Tension of Methodics, Heuristics and Creativity
Gerhard Banse

The concern of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the processes which generate news. It will be asked for the „types“ of these occurring mental procedures. The starting point is the idea that there are three types of mental procedures that effectively interact in analysing as well as synthesizing intention: methodical (“logical“, „algorithmic“, „strictly predictable“ and „routine“, usually „on individual“), heuristic (“non-algorithmic“, „fuzzy predictable“, often „individual“) and creative (intuitive, based on „guided“ imagination, often subconsciously executive and as a „flash of inspiration“ is performing). These three „operation classes“ are then characterized. Furthermore, the bow is stretched from „finding ideas“ to the „enforcement“ of the new (“diffusion“), its „probation“ in the everyday world, until its confrontation with the „commonplaceness“.

 

Creativity and Expertise as Driving Forces and Key Factors in the Knowledge Society
Nicanor Ursua

Innovations and creativity today offer key competitive development in the economy of success. Innovation and creativity are based primarily on the ability of people or organizations to produce new ideas and realize these ideas in practice. The effective development of a system of „idea management“ and „talent management“ depends, as has been shown, on the degree of involvement of people in the process of production and the use of new ideas in companies or organizations. In this process there are a number of criteria or requirements set out briefly, to produce ideas and realize them.

 

Appropriation of Social Network Sites on the Internet – Sign Processing and Appropriation of Interfaces
Julius Erdmann

The everyday use of Social Network Sites is a paradoxical situation: On the one hand Social Media Platforms defy more and more the classical concept of technical appropriation as manipulation of the code structures in the hard- and software levels, because the only technical level an everyday user may perceive is its graphical interface. On the other hand, the augmenting production of „user generated content“ gives the impression that users have a wide access to the technical production process. The question therefore is how to conceive the concept of appropriation in relation to Social Media and Social Network Sites. The classical concepts of media appropriation that, as will be shown, basically rely on the appropriation of sign meaning or the appropriation of technical objects, do not suit the features of those new dimensions of everyday media use anymore: Appropriation of Social Network Sites can be perceived as technical appropriation of interfaces through the processing of signs. The concept of appropriation as proposed by Alexej A. Leontjev helps us to consider appropriation of Social Network Site between individualization, sign processing and use of technical interfaces.

 

New Communication Cultures and Innovation Dynamics Czech Experiences
Karel Mráček, Petr Machleidt

This contribution is oriented to issues of evaluation of changes and consequences of new communication modes, which are causing by rapid development of innovation activity, especially in ICT area. Concrete knowledge is based mainly on analysis regarding the development of information society in the Czech Republic and its comparison with other EU member countries. In this context the special attention is also devoted to the analysis of technological optimism of the Czech public and their perceptions of science, research and innovation in confrontation with the lacklustre interest of the Czech public in the problems of technology assessment.

 

Use of New Media by Students in Germany and Mongolia – Survey 2014/2015. Some Results of the Second CULTMEDIA Survey
Antje Zapf, Anne Wohne

The debate of the CULTMEDIA research group on the Internet as a „means, medium and milieu“ is resumed ten years after the first CULTMEDIA survey in 2004. The data from the 2015 survey state clear changes in the way German students use the Internet. The new data from Mongolia, that was not part of the initial data collection, reveal cultural variation in terms of Internet usage. It appears that some of the 2014 data from Mongolia is almost identical to the information surveyed in Germany in 2004.

 

Reflexivity in Times of Socio-technological Fields of Action – the App Store as an Example
Tilo Grenz

The contribution is based on empirical as well as theoretical insights that were developed within the research project „Mediatization as a Business Model: The entanglement of Product and Adoption in a Digital Media Enironment and its Consequences“. The project is part of the wider priority programme 1505 „Mediatized Worlds“, founded by German Research Foundation. The empirical focus of the contribution lies on a specific case: the „In-App-Purchase-Hack“. The incident is situated within the conflict-ridden trajectory of the App Store Business Model. It illustrates, that today’s socio-technological fields are characterized by a chronic vulnerability for non-intended side effects. While we have to do with complex fields of actors, their actions and its consequences, there are different causes of this vulnerability that can be identified. Finally, the insights are discussed within the broader frame of the Theory of Reflexive Modernization that has to be actualized with specific concepts, in order to grasp the socio-technological context of today’s societies.

 

Culture and New Media in the Context of Applied Ethics
Daniela Fobelová, Pavel Fobel

In recent years the concept culture has been used both in the sphere of science and in standard communication to indicate a large number of practices that cannot be found in traditional theories of culture. A new content of the concept culture is fulfilled by extension of terms, by attributes like „everyday culture“, „alternative culture“, „media culture“ and so on. It should be noted that nowadays the very concept culture is increasingly being detached from the cultural communities of the nation, ethnicity, cultural circles etc. which were its proprietors. Consequently, we see the definition of culture through an individual deemed to be the owner of multiple identities. Their number and arrangement can be varied by individual acting. In this case, it is better to talk about „cultural studies“ (S. Hall) through terminology including „benefit“, „decoding process“, „interpretative community“ used in Anglo-Saxon countries. In postcolonial studies the concept of culture is used to select a dynamic process that is transnational and thus associated with tearing bonds on a certain territory. This process creates a kind of cultural hybrid. An important role in a culture change belongs to media, mainly using Facebook or other social networks. They have filled up a communication void in many people´s lives. They shook hands on contact, actually joined people from all over the world, but also set traps. Not every lonely man sharing such a connection is able „to extricate“ from the exciting network of these diverse relations. This issue will be addressed using the tools of applied ethics – for example the use of e-learning in applied ethics during students´ education at schools as well as in the frame of education and guidance of applied ethicists in different sectors of practice.

 

The Cultural Relevance of New Media for Appropriation Cultures – the Example of Circuit Bending
Paul Eisewicht, Michaela Pfadenhauer

Circuit bending can most notably be described as the conversion or misuse of electronic toys meant for children in order to perform music. We identified the importance of very specific knowledge in order for participants to develop a set of skills which enables people to engage in what we call „Aneignungskulturen“ (appropriation or appropriative community). Thus this article aims to show how the wilful conversion or misuse of products and the influence of media technology shape the dynamic within such appropriation communities. Within Circuit bending the knowledge related to specific conversions shows itself in terms of recontextualizing products in certain ways, modifying the product itself or even the creation of peculiar new instruments. To such an extent, products or consumer goods in appropriation communities can be seen as vehicles that enable people to experience a form of togetherness related to community specific activities, as such these activities can be described as a form of consumptive sociality. The specifics of this form of sociality lie within acts of showing common or similar knowledge related to converting consumer goods which may evoke this sense of togetherness. For this to happen, the use of media technology is widely seen as a necessity. By gaining a deeper understanding into the specific role of media technology we were able to identify three major aspects: extension, substitution and accommodation. Extension relates to media technology enabling people to overcome space-time and social distances. Substitution describes the entanglement of non-media and media and the latter, accommodation describes practices that are strictly related to or arranged in regards to the infrastructures and limitations of specific media technology. We thereby argue that all of the criteria above shape the practices of conversion within circuit bending and are therefore enabling people to maintain a sense of togetherness in Communities of Appropriation.

 

Creativity and Standardization as Options of Conveying Knowledge in Internet: Combining Language and Technology
Annely Rothkegel

The basis of internet communication is determined through conditions of text building as well as of linking data in a sense of technology which are both strongly connected. Both are characterized by principles of combining units in order to get some new object which is more complex. This paper discusses two strategies (expansion, reduction) concerning tasks of production and/or reception of websites, in a media-linguistic perspective of text analysis. Two websites, aiming at conveying knowledge, are analyzed on three text levels: topical meaning, representation and design. It is argued that some specific configurations of expansion and reduction strategies open a window to see how creativity or standardization is realized in formats of websites.

 

A (New) New Media Poetics? Human Creativity in the Context of New Media
Mariola Sułkowska-Janowska

The article shortly reconstructs Aristotle’s poetics, focusing rather on some aesthetic and philosophical than technical aspects. Then, the author puts forward a hypothesis: in the case of Aristotle’s theory art and reality are epistemologically equivalent but ontologically – obviously – reality is ahead of art, meanwhile in the contemporary world, dominated by new media, these relations seem to be quite different: epistemologically media dominate reality but ontologically reality becomes equivalent to virtuality. Thus, the new kind of poetics seems to perfectly correspond with the essence of our visualized and mediatized environment and obviously with the form of logic ordered our minds’ working, which appears to be the pictural one, and which proposes a suitable syntax for this pictural world. Since the last one has some rhizomatic structure then the syntax should not be a traditional, linear one but rather conurbational in terms of a conurbational and potentially unfinished structure of Moebius strip.

 

Revolution Bringing the Bygones Back: New Technologies in Music of the 20th Century
Magdalena Wołek

The paper describes the elementary connection between fine arts and technique, especially the question of susceptibility of particular fine arts to revolutions caused by new technologies. Susceptibility to new technologies depends on number of tools used in particular arts: the more tools the less susceptibility. Example of art that is technical and not-susceptible to revolution is music. Up till the 20th century the music develops rather smoothly. The revolution was the invention of electronic instruments. Together with popularization of electronics increases interest in early music and its original instruments. In this quite untypical way new technology brought the earlier music back in the 20th century.

 

On the Web of Time – The Internet as Reflected in the Event Philosophy. Conceptual Approaches
Konstantin Keulen, Kornelius Keulen

Scientific dealing with the topic „time in net“ leads into the complexity of the phenomenon time. Since our days the question what is time has incorporated into the influence of the internet and has made a subject of discussion between various disciplines. Up to now the changes of the matters of our perception with regard to time and its experience has examined in a phenomenological way only. Inside the many theories we define our research area which is characterized by the rhizomic structure in the sense of Deleuze/Guattari. The time configuration is transformed in as well by the internet itself and this transformation reflects the modern human experience of time. While reflecting so the well known modi of time (past, present, future) will be overshadowed by a present which is understood by us in the sense of fictional reality. We therefore discuss how in the internet the interrelationship of creativity and time are to be interpreted in a completely new way; furthermore in these investigations it is especially to look for between (zwischen), i.e. the emptiness (Leerstelle = spatial blank) which causes the time of events within the medial time. The paper explains some of the more important issues.

 

Protection of an Image of Crime Victims versus New Media
Aleksandra Kuzior, Paulina Kuzior

New media – primarily the Internet and mobile phones – are an integral part of modern man's life. Social media activities often involve using the image of third parties. Victims of crimes are often taken by the media objectively, mainly because they are unaware that they are entitled to protect their image. The article presents dangers associated with the misuse of technological innovations, as well as moves importance of the phenomenon of secondary victimization and PTSD. The authors raise issues of ethical competencies that are to shape the moral awareness among users, so that the new media would not become an instrument of harassment, defamation, insult, or ridicule.

 

Generation Raised in the Internet in Poland. An Empirical Portrait
Zbigniew Oniszczuk

Divisions between the generations play an important part in contemporary Poland. The term „generation“ is defined differently in social sciences, however it is viewed as a factor changing society. The article attempts to characterize the so-called „Generation Y“ meaning young people born between 1983 and 1995. Empirical research shows clearly that this generation constitutes the most active group of Polish Internet users. For these people the Internet is not merely part of media but an extension of reality. The Generation Y regards itself as special, although it has life and work-connected problems (unemployment, lack of a partner for relationship, necessity of living with parents, paying off loans and reluctance to active participation in social protests). It can be assumed that this generation does not have the potential to change Polish society.

 

Rational and Reflexive Competencies of People in the Culture of New Media
Andrzej Kiepas

The article discusses changes in the context of human being understood as a subject. These changes are a result of new media development understood as factors of contemporary culture’s shaping. For new media, in general, are not neutral ones – they shape our ideas of the world as well as us ourselves as subjects of suitable actions. The article, referring to some different conceptions, points at some changes which concern man and his rationality connected with its reflective competence.

 

New Ideas in the World of Multimedia – the Need for a Balance
Bogdan Zeler

This paper discusses the changes in the communication process in new media. Particularly interesting seems to be changes connected with media Web 2.0. On the one hand it offers new, unknown possibilities to communicate, that changes relationship to other persons, surrounding world, social and political transmutations. On the other it generates a number of previously unknown threats, such as access to classified information or security-threatening behaviour. A 2.0 human and AI is being born. It seems that with these phenomena it is necessary to prepare the profit and loss account.

 

Media and Anxiety of Civilization. An Ethical Perspective
Mariusz Wojewoda

Today, the media affect significantly the altering thinking of consumers of culture. Media provide information on current events, interpret facts, and determine the canon of understanding reality. On the one hand, the media influence our sense of security, shape ideas about life realised, on the other hand media generate anxiety of civilization, instrumentalist fears. In my presentation, I would like to analyse images of typical anxiety of civilization, which are reflected in contemporary media: a) fear of strangers (immigrants, people excluded), anxiety about social status, fear of natural disasters, fear of violence and anxiety related to the use of new media and cyberspace. In the analytical part I refer to the works of the philosophers of existence: Antoni Kępiński, Paul Tillich, and contemporary researchers of anxiety civilization Ulrich Beck, Michaela Marzano, Alain de Botton, Eilas Aboujaode, Kenneth J. Gergen, Aaron Ben-Ze’ev.

 

Does New Media Virtualize Culture?
Gerhard Zecha

Media is everywhere. Whether the media is in magazines, the internet, or on television, it is constantly sending us messages, whether we want it to or not. We cannot help but be exposed to its message, no matter if we consider the message to be culturally valuable or worthless, to be moral or immoral. The question of the impact of the new media on culture is answered from a natural law perspective vis-à-vis the popular ethical relativism engulfed in the media. Eight arguments for and eight arguments against the moral impact of new media are discussed. Considering the fact that social media in particular is exploding in popularity both in personal and commercial use, we are invited to take seriously the confirmed fundamental principles of sound ethical reasoning.

 

Can You Milk a Cow? The Pressers of Buttons Want to Get Out of the Algorithm-Trap!
Otto Ulrich

A new step in the long lasting men-machine-relation is emerging: the rule of algorithms are coming, reducing the user to simple button handles. The lost of competence to act without computers is a signature of our time. We need an ability-society – but, before that, we need a political approach, to guideline the running „digital agenda“ activities.

 

New Culture / New Cultures – Traditional Pedagogical Practices in Media Education
Tadeusz Miczka

I defend the opinion that high technology, which develops dynamically and interferes all spheres of social life, should be accompanied by media education which follows information education. I prove that pedagogical discourse and education practices have very traditional character although the subjects which are involved are postmodern characters. That is why I suggest: treating media education as basis of all education, it should be definitively based on cognitive knowledge (contextual and useful), structure and culture hybridism should be its main ordering rule, and value issues should be particularly strongly exposed in the plan of context. Its aim should be creating integral personality of contemporary media user.

 

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