Ursua, Nicanor / Metzner-Szigeth, Andreas (Hrsg.)

Netzbasierte Kommunikation, Identität und Gemeinschaft

 

[= e-culture, Bd. 6], trafo verlag 2006, 407 S., zahlr. Abb., ISBN 3-89626-629-2,  39,80 EUR

 

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

 

Editorial der Herausgeber 9

 

Einleitung: Netzbasierte Kommunikation, Identität und Gemeinschaft 11

Nicanor Ursua / Andreas Metzner-Szigeth

 

 

1. Technisch-mediale, sozial-psychologische und sozio-kulturelle Veränderungen 23

 

(Kulturelle) Identität, Gemeinschaft und netzbasierte Kommunikation. Anmerkungen zur Diskussion 25

Gerhard Banse

 

Cyber-Identitäten und Virtuelle Gemeinschaften – Sozial-Psychologische Überlegungen 43

Andreas Metzner-Szigeth

 

Virtual Identities: From Avatars to Zombies 91

Zoltan Galantai

 

2. Schriftlichkeit – Weltbilder – Postmoderne 99

 

Is Electronic Writing a Threat to Philosophy? 101

José Ignacio Galparsoro

 

Von virtueller Erfahrung zum virtuellen Weltbild? Kognitive Aspekte virtueller Realität 123

Julián Pacho

 

Homo Complex – Information and Community in a Global Ecology 145

Ignacio Ayestarán

3. Politische Einheiten, Strukturen und Prozesse 159

 

Identität, Gemeinschaft und Nation in der "Netzwerkgesellschaft" – Theoretische Argumente und empirische Befunde 161

Nicanor Ursua

 

Republicanism, Identity and the Internet 177

Andoni Alonso Puelles / Luis Casas Luengo

 

Telematische Demokratie oder demokratische Telematik? 187

Ulrich Klose

 

Transnationale zivilgesellschaftliche Öffentlichkeiten im virtuellen Raum 219

Sonja Kutschera-Groinig / Rainer Winter

 

Die Nutzung und Nichtnutzung des Internets. Eine kritische Reflexion der Diskussion zum "Digital Divide" 233

Bettina-Johanna Krings / Ulrich Riehm

 

From Virtual Identities to Real Rights 253

Zoltan Galantai

 

4. Kulturelle Identitäten und Glokalisierung 263

 

Zwischen kultureller, politischer und wirtschaftlicher Gemeinschaft: das Dilemma einer europäischen Identität am Beispiel der Türkei-Debatte 265

Angelos Giannakopoulos

 

The Glocalization of National and Cultural Identity 287

Tadeusz Miczka

 

Is There a Danger of Cultural Globalization? (Some Remarks on Nationalist and Alterglobalist Theses) 297

Kazimierz Sleczka

 

Kulturelle Identität in einer globalisierten Welt? 315

Robert Hauser

 

5. Ethnizität, Online-Sprache und Literatur 333

 

"Virtuelle Ethnizität" zwischen Folklore, sozialer Praxis und Politik – Ein Blick auf Identitätsdiskurse im Internet 335

Nils Zurawski

 

Englische Sprache im Internet – Notwendigkeit oder Gefahr? 357

Urszula Żydek-Bednarczuk

 

Literatur als Bestimmung von (polnischer) Nationalidentität und globaler Identität in Zeiten des Internets 369

Bogdan Zeler

 

Ausblick 377

 

Die Neuen Medien und die kulturelle Vielfalt Europas: Zur Konzeption der ersten CultMedia-Befragung 379

Hans-Joachim Petsche / Antje Zapf

 

Summaries 397

 

 

 

 

Editorial der Herausgeber

 

Die Reihe e-Culture wurde zu Beginn des Jahres 2004 auf Initiative des European Research Network Cultural Diversity and New Media (CultMedia) begründet. Anliegen des Netzwerks ist die weitergehende Analyse der Veränderungen kultureller Praxen (etwa Nutzungsmuster, Nutzungsmotivationen und Nutzungssituationen), die im Zusammenhang mit der Anwendung der so genannten Neuen Medien, vor allem des Internet stehen. Die Forschung zur netzbasierten Kommunikation hat sich in den letzten Jahren ähnlich rasant entwickelt wie das Internet selbst. Die Relevanz dieses relativ neuen Forschungsfeldes ergibt sich auch aus der großen Bedeutung, die dem Internet für mehrere wichtige gesellschaftliche Trends (wie z. B. die Globalisierung) beigemessen wird. Der Wandel, der aus diesen Trends folgt, wird oft als ein umfassender Kulturwandel eingeschätzt, mit Auswirkungen auf alle Lebensbereiche moderner Gesellschaften.

Infolge seiner disziplinären Zusammensetzung konzentriert sich das Netzwerk in seiner Arbeit die philosophische und kulturwissenschaftliche, auf die psychologische und sozialwissenschaftliche sowie auf die kommunikations- und informationswissenschaftliche Ebene. Fokus der Untersuchung ist dabei stets die Frage, wie die Möglichkeiten und Auswirkungen des Internet hinsichtlich neuer Formen der Information, Kommunikation und Kooperation im Bereich der "Kultur des Alltäglichen" einzuschätzen sind.

Die Reihe e-Culture dient der Vorstellung von Forschungs- und Arbeitsergebnissen im Bereich Neue Medien und Kultur. Sie soll einen Kristallisationspunkt für auf diesem Gebiet Tätige darstellen – innerhalb wie außerhalb des CultMedia-Netzwerks.

Der vorliegende sechste Band Netzbasierte Kommunikation, Identität und Gemeinschaft basiert einerseits auf Beiträgen, die zum CultMedia-Workshop "Netzbasierte Kommunikation und das Verhältnis von Identität und Gemeinschaft" gehalten wurden. Dieser Workshop fand im April 2004 an der Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea in San Sebastián, Spanien, statt. Anderseits wurde der Band um weitere Beiträge ergänzt, die die Thematik inhaltlich abrunden.

Der durch die Entwicklung von digitalen Medien und computervermittelter Kommunikation induzierte Formwandel kultureller Praxen (etwa in Form von Kommunikationsmustern oder eingeübten Handlungsvollzügen) verläuft nun nicht einfach technikinduziert, sondern verbunden mit wechselbezüglichen gesellschaftlichen Entwicklungsprozessen, wie Globalisierung, Individualisierung, Modernisierung, Komplexitäts- und Kontingenzsteigerung sowie Wertewandel.

Die im vorliegenden Band zusammengeführten Beiträge machen mehreres deutlich. Netzbasierte Kommunikation als technische Neuerung kann nicht losgelöst von der makrotheoretischen Kulturentwicklung gesehen werden. Die Veränderungen der modernen Lebensführung sind vielfältig. Sie haben ihre Ursache nicht nur oder vorrangig in der Entstehung neuer technischer Artefakte. Vielmehr ist es ein komplexer Mix aus vielen sozialen, politischen und technischen Faktoren, der Veränderungen bewirkt oder verhindert. Netzbasierte Kommunikation ist damit nur ein Faden im "Gewebe" Kultur. Kulturelle Veränderungen ergeben sich nicht automatisch durch neue (z. B. technische) Möglichkeiten, sondern diese sind von den Kompetenzen und dem Sinnverständnis der Nutzer abhängig (das wiederum von der Kultur wesentlich mitbestimmt wird). Die wesentlichen sozialen und kulturellen Wirkungszusammenhänge des Internet rühren weniger von seinen technischen Eigenschaften her, sondern von der Tatsache, dass Menschen es zu einem alltäglichen und sozialen Interaktionsraum machen.

Ein genereller Kommunikationswandel durch netzbasierte Kommunikation kann indes noch nicht festgestellt werden. Zwar werden durch netzbasierte Kommunikation in der Tat einige Barrieren der face-to-face Kommunikation aufgehoben, aber dafür entstehen an anderer Stelle neue. Die als neu gewonnen geglaubte Gleichheit der Teilnehmer in netzbasierten Kommunikation etwa kann nicht bzw. kaum verwirklicht werden. Viele der veröffentlichten Ideen zur Gemeinschaftsbildung basieren vor allem auf einer (unzulässigen!) Extrapolation der technischen Möglichkeiten ins Soziale. Erst im Zeitverlauf wird sich herausstellen, welche Kommunikationsmuster für welche Gruppierungen oder Teilöffentlichkeiten als stabil (und damit wirkmächtig) identifiziert werden können. Die Botschaft dieses Buches ist, dass das auch für sich verändernde Muster individueller Identitätsbildung (im Verhältnis von personaler und sozialer Identität) sowie der Bildung von Gemeinschaften (als Assoziation zusammen lebender, interagierender oder miteinander kommunizierender Personen) zutrifft …

 

Für die Herausgeber

Gerhard Banse

 

 

Summaries

 

Nicanor Ursua & Andreas Metzner-Szigeth

Einleitung: Netzbasierte Kommunikation, Identität und Gemeinschaft

 

Summary: "Introduction: Net-based Communication, Identity and Community" Here the editors are explaining context and raison d’être of this volume, its main contents and the structure of the anthology together with the order of its single contributions.

 

Gerhard Banse

(Kulturelle) Identität, Gemeinschaft und netzbasierte Kommunikation. Anmerkungen zur Diskussion

 

Summary: "(Cultural) Identity, Community and Net-based Communication: Some Remarks to the Discussion" Starting point of this article are ideas of the project "Analysis of net-based communication under cultural topics" of the Bureau of Technology Assessment of the German Parliament. From them will be drawn some conclusions concerning the understanding of the relationship between individual and community in front of globalized net-based communication as background. With regard to cultural identity finally will be gone into three fields shortly: understanding of culture, tacit knowledge, biometry and identity.

 

Andreas Metzner-Szigeth

Cyber-Identitäten und Virtuelle Gemeinschaften – Sozial-Psychologische Überlegungen

 

Summary: The paper on "Cyber-Identities and Virtual Communities – Socio-Psychological Deliberations" focuses on the question of the nature of interdependencies between – on the one side – the expansion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in general and the spread and diversification of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in particular and – on the other side – changing socio-cultural patterns and shifting socio-psychological characteristics of inter-personal relations and their intra-personal anchors in modern life. The 1st chapter ("About Technology and Culture, Euphoria and Pessimism") gives an introduction while considering some configurations of technology, culture, and their interplay, with the intention to outline a third way in between of one-sided either technological or cultural deterministic conceptualizations in analyzing the interdependencies just mentioned. Additionally some critical remarks will be placed with regard to changing fashions and tendencies of turning-around future-expectations and evaluation standards in the discourse over the development of the Internet, that are almost superficial. The 2nd chapter ("From Space and Time, Virtuality and Reality") specifies a thesis concerning the progressing re-arrangement of the constitution of space/time and virtuality/reality interactions. Moreover, in order to give some essential overview, forms of communication, media and Internet-based services like E-Mail, IRC or MUD are distinguished together with their main contextual features. The 3rd chapter ("On Identity, Community and Networking") examines the interrelated and controversial phenomena of cyber-identities and virtual-communities, also in so far the distinction between privacy and the public is involved. Questioning the general importance of net-based community-building in our modern society, at least the dynamics between the seemingly opposing forces of individualization and networking are investigated.

 

Zoltan Galantai

Virtual Identities: From Avatars to Zombies

 

Summary: The emergence of new technologies causes new identity problems on the internet. First of all, joining an on-line community typically gives us an opportunity to choose an identity, and this persona switching can result either the hiding of sensitive pieces of information or choosing the identity of a non existing being. On the other hand, we are eyewitnesses of the rising of both avatars and computer-generated idols, but these interfaces won’t be too realistic, since developing a character more and more realistic leads to the rising level of the expectations of the users, but – without using a real artificial intelligence, which still does not exist – they wouldn’t be able to satisfy the expectation.

 

José Ignacio Galparsoro

Is Electronic Writing a Threat to Philosophy?

 

Summary: The article analyses the problem of the impact of a new technology (the computer, making the appearance of electronic writing possible) on a discipline (philosophy) which is closely linked with traditional writing. Electronic writing can represent a threat to philosophy if it adopts the characteristics attributed to this writing by experts and if it substitutes slow argumentation with unreflective haste.

 

Julián Pacho

Von virtueller Erfahrung zum virtuellen Weltbild? Kognitive Aspekte virtueller Realität

 

Summary: "From Virtual Experience to Virtual World-Image? Cognitive Aspects of Virtual Reality" Is the virtual reality able to cause a new kind of world-image, that is, a virtual world-image? The answer depends on the epistemological properties of the virtual experience. The cognitive realism and especially the externality of the knowledge in the virtual world are regarded as decisive factors of the question. This paper analyses those properties and suggests a conditional answer: if there is a virtual world-image, this will hardly help to distinguish and constitute cultural identities, just as the world-images had done until now.

 

Ignacio Ayestarán

Homo Complex – Information and Community in a Global Ecology

 

Summary: We live between modernity (the disenchantment with material truth and search for abstract truth) and postmodernity (where there is no universal truth, abstract or otherwise). We are living through a movement from an organic, industrial society to a polymorphous, postfordist, information system. In this cultural change we live with fractured identities: they undermine the justifications for patriarchy, colonialism, humanism, positivism, essentialism, scientism, and other unlamented -isms. The actual situation of women/men is their integration/exploitation into a world system of production/reproduction and communication called the informatics of domination. The home, workplace, market, public arena, the body itself – all can be dispersed and interfaced in nearly infinite, polymorphous ways, with large consequences for women and others: we are cyborgs in a global planet. The cyborg is a kind of disassembled and reassembled, postmodern collective and personal self. Our planet is a global network of living information. Gaia is our Living Republic. Homo complex and cyborgs are their new citizens.

 

Nicanor Ursua

Identität, Gemeinschaft und Nation in der "Netzwerkgesellschaft" – Theoretische Argumente und empirische Befunde

 

Summary: "Identity, Community and Nation in the ‘Network-Society’ – Theoretical Arguments and Empirical Findings" Identity is a fashionable issue. Everybody wants one and many promise to have the suitable one. Issues on identity, community, and nation, inside the society of knowledge where we live, have become a fascinating thing with wide implications for human beings in cyberspace. Some philosophical and societal conclusions are drawn from M. Castells studies on the "Network Society" in Catalonia.

 

Andoni Alonso Puelles & Luis Casas Luengo

Republicanism, Identity and the Internet

 

Summary: Starting point of this article is the question of how technology has reshaped some aspects of our (political) life while technology alone cannot solve all our (political) troubles. The crisis of democracy and the citizen’s lack of compromise on public affairs like polls show a rather dark scene for the professional politicians. But at the same time globalization poses new challenges that only can be solved with aid of technology. This paper explores the emergence of a new form of politics branded as "hyperpolitics" and how we can succeed in having a real democratic republic.

 

Ulrich Klose

Telematische Demokratie oder demokratische Telematik?

 

Summary: "Telematical Democracy or Democratical Telematics" The concept E-Government is often addressed to as a possibility for a new turn of democratization of the political process. This expectation is more a normative declaration than an empirical grounded finding. This article examines the democratic potential of E-Government and concludes that it is far from being sufficiently recognized. First of all this is the fact for the public participation in developing the electronic applications. Up to now given political structures are merely reproduced in the digital sphere by established political and administrative actors. The basis for democratic E-Government is a deliberative political culture. From this base E-Government can reinforce the democratic quality of the political process.

 

Sonja Kutschera-Groinig & Rainer Winter

Transnationale zivilgesellschaftliche Öffentlichkeiten im virtuellen Raum

 

Summary: "Transnational Civil-Society Public (Spheres) in the Virtual Space" The public within the virtual networks consists of different partial publics. There is an area of tension between the different fields in the net. Public-institutional internet sites want to be representative and to entitle their work, whereas transnational civic sites want to generate a counter public sphere. Civic networks use the hyperlink structure to network between local communication sites. They generate a plural global acquiring system for new memberships and for the stabilization of existing memberships. Civic networks work to build a transnational identity. The article shows the enormous latent communicative potential within the fast emerging civic internet sites and shows how the institutional political parties could use this potential.

 

Bettina-Johanna Krings & Ulrich Riehm

Die Nutzung und Nichtnutzung des Internets. Eine kritische Reflexion der Diskussion zum "Digital Divide"

 

Summary: "The Use and No-Use of the Internet. A Critical Reflection of the Discussion over the ‘Digital Divide’" In the last ten years the Internet was considered as one of the most important technologies in societal development. Therefore the political debate on the "digital divide" as well as political strategies avoiding a digital gap between social groups seemed to be a profound challenge for democratic systems. Nevertheless the following article focuses on the critical voices, which have arisen from this debate. These voices focus on the rhetoric structure by which the debate can be characterised. This structure includes, first, the creation of dichotomies of non users and users, second, the dramatisation of non use of the internet and third specific promises, which are necessarily connected with Internet use. Regarding other technological developments the authors also adopt a critical view of the Internet, defending a broader technological concept which involves use and non use of the Internet as well as all temporal and functional forms of Internet use.

 

Zoltan Galantai

From Virtual Identities to Real Rights

 

Summary: Human race is usually regarded as a static category, as our biology didn’t changed since the neolithic revolution and the appearance of the first historians and philosophers notably. But it seems theoretically possible (at least) that the coming era of biotech revolutions will change this situation and we will have to redefine not only the meaning of homo sapiens, but we will have to reconsider the meaning of the traditional "human rights", as well. There are some more or less fantastic or absurd proposals to extend the traditional "human rights" to other categories (to "intelligent machines", for example) today, but their ridiculousness should not prevent us from taking the future of rights seriously.

 

Angelos Giannakopoulos

Zwischen kultureller, politischer und wirtschaftlicher Gemeinschaft: das Dilemma einer europäischen Identität am Beispiel der Türkei-Debatte

 

Summary: "Between Cultural, Political and Economical Community: The Dilemma of an European Identity at the Example of the Debate over Turkey" The article deals with the on-going debates on the prospective EU-membership of Turkey throughout Europe and in Turkey on the background of the accession negotiations started on 3 October 2005. Point of reference are conceptualisations of a European identity on the basis of this bipolar debates. In this perspective the article distinguishes two main arguments: the first one underlines questions of the "cultural compatibility" of Turkey, whereas the second one addresses mainly aspects of the "political conditionality" of the EU-membership of Turkey. The article points out what kind of problems these two arguments implicate and what this means both for the future of the European Union and the European perspective of Turkey.

 

Tadeusz Miczka

The Glocalization of National and Cultural Identity

 

Summary: In the age of radical transformation, one of the most important and the most interesting problems is the instability of identities, especially the national and cultural ones, on the basis of which the concepts of both the individual and social life were constructed so far. Within the realm of personal and collective dimensions identity is always created by such elements as substance, memory, anticipation, body, and – in the case of community – territory and common rituals as well as the consciousness of specific beginnings, but today they become disintegrated and restratificated. More frequently they are based on the feeling of uncertainty, the lack of foundation and an "axiological horizon". Sources of identity are changing unequally and irregularly, but at the same time definitely, especially under the pressure of globalization as well as in the perspective of new media.

 

Kazimierz Sleczka

Is There a Danger of Cultural Globalization? (Some Remarks on Nationalist and Alterglobalist Theses)

 

Summary: Alterglobalists and nationalists warn against cultural globalization as a process undermining the existence of nations. But cultural globalization is a complex process. There are three ways of understanding it: the homogenization (in progress but far of being completed), the planetarization (is on increase), and the hybridization (a widespread phenomenon now). In cultural globalization various strata and levels of culture are involved differently. The social participation in the processes of cultural globalization is also diversified. The thesis: "There is a danger of cultural globalization" is a popular and demagogic slogan but it has no real sense unless it has been more specified. Sometimes it is the lack of cultural globalization processes that is more disadvantageous.

 

Robert Hauser

Kulturelle Identitäten in einer globalisierten Welt? Betrachtungen eines kulturellen Identitätskonzeptes

 

Summary: "Cultural Identities in a Globalized World?" The article introduces a new concept of cultural identity to the research on the relationship between globalisation and cultures. In order to empirically analyse the usage of new media and it’s impact on identities, a differentiated concept of cultural identity is needed. A brief review of literature on the effects of globalisation on cultural identities shows some contraries of the current debate. The concept of cultural identity based on the concepts of Carl F. Graumann and Klaus P. Hansen is introduced, it’s potential for the debate is lined out and it is shown where further specifications are needed. The article concludes with a discussion of how online research could benefit from an elaborated concept of cultural identity.

 

Nils Zurawski

"Virtuelle Ethnizität" zwischen Folklore, sozialer Praxis und Politik. Ein Blick auf Identitätsdiskurse im Internet

 

Summary: "‘Virtual Ethnicity’ between Folklore, Social Practice and Politics – A Glance on Identity Discourses in the Internet" The article endeavours to analyse identity discourses on the Internet. Grounded in the view that the Internet has become part of the social and political practice as a run of the mill medium – and therefore a place for such discourses – the example of the Low German language is used to show how identity is presented and negotiated. Different interests, political strategies and the social practice concerning a minority/regional language with often contradictory testimonies, can be clearly articulated. A conclusive comparison with other identity discourses – namely Russian, Moluccian, Caribbean ("Trini") – develops a general approach for the research and analysis of representations of identity on the Internet and its consequential dynamics.

 

Urszula Żydeck-Bednarczuk

Englische Sprache im Internet – Notwendigkeit oder Gefahr

 

Summary: "English Language in the Internet – Necessity or Danger?" The aim of the paper is to show influences of English language on mother-tongue languages in the Internet. The statistic analysis of Internet user groups is going to determine the language preferences. Technical standards in Internet communication – English protocols and ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange) – provoke a global use of the English language. Furthermore, the paper draws attention both to the fact of introducing a specific and global English language to the Internet and to the remaining and growing use of national languages.

 

Bogdan Zeler

Literatur als Bestimmung von (polnischer) Nationalidentität und globaler Identität in Zeiten des Internets

 

Summary: "Literature as Determination of (Polish) National-Identity and Global Identity in the Age of Internet" The paper is showing some remarks concerning the place of literature in the creation process of the national identity. For centuries writers have been considerably decisive about the character of the national consciousness. This notion of national identity is replaced by postmodern identity. Changes concern the literary canon, the meaning of literary tradition which is becoming the subject of a specific game between the text and the reader. Hypertextual literature of Internet is stressing the categories of changeability, coincidence, inability of expression and uncertainty as well as intertextual games.

 

Hans-Joachim Petsche & Antje Zapf

Die Neuen Medien und die kulturelle Vielfalt Europas: Zur Konzeption der ersten CultMedia-Befragung

 

Summary: "The New Media and the Cultural Diversity of Europe: On the Conceptualization of the first CultMedia-Poll" The design of an empirical-comparative pilot survey to the influence of the internet on the cultural identity of the students at European universities is presented. Cultural practices in handling the Internet are to be uncovered and be analyzed in their relevance for the formation of identity. In a continuing longitudinal study the resuming change potentials should be observed.